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X-Ray Safety Management

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Safety and Protections
World Health Organization (WHO) declared in 1980 that foodstuffs irradiated with X-ray dose of or less than 10kGy have no problem whatsoever from the perspectives of toxicity, nutrients contained and micro-organism.
Dosage of X-ray foreign matter detector of our company is less than 0.001Gy, making it much lower than the recommended value of WHO.
Protection for human being
We are always exposed to radiation. Annual exposure of human being to radiation is approximately
1,100μ㏜/h (limit of dosage by International Committee on Radiation Defense), and dosage of approximately 300μ㏜ is irradiated for each thoracic X-ray.
Leakage dose of X-ray foreign matter detector of our company is less than 1μ㏜/h.
* 2000h = 8 hours per day, 5 days per week and 50 weeks per year (announced by the Law on Atomic Energy of Ministry of Science and Technology) (1.4mSv / 200h)
Overview of radiation and food safety
Unit of measurement of radiation: Irradiation, Absorption, Dosage
방사선 측정 단위 : 조사, 흡수, 선량
Categories New Unit Former Unit Conversion
Unit of radiation Becquerel Curie 1Ci = 3.7 x 1010Bq
Bq CI IBq = 2.7 x 10-11 CI
Unit of Radiation Irradiation Dose Coulomb/Kg Roentgen 1R - 2.58 x 10-4 C /kg
C/kg R 1C/kg = 3.88 x 103 R
Absorption Dose Gray Rad 1rad = 0.01Gy
Gy rad 1Gy = 100rad
Dose Equivalent Sievert Rem 1rem = 0.01Sv
Sv Rem 1 Sv = 100rem
방사선의 피폭선량 : 자연/인공 방사선
방사선 측정 단위 : 조사, 흡수, 선량
  Goal of irradiation Quantity of irradiation
(k G y*)
Subject plants Irradiation effect Comments
Low dose irradiation Inhibition of germination 0.05~0.15 Sweet patato, onion, garlic, ginger, etc Extension of storage period, hygienic  
Controlling of pest and parasites 0.15~0.50 Grain, beans,
fresh fruit,
dehydrated fruit,
dehydrated fish,
dehydrated meat,
fresh pork, etc
Extension of storage period, hygienic Including specimen material
Delay of maturation 0.5~1.0 Fresh fruit and
vegetable
Extension of storage period, hygienic  
Medium dose irradiation Extension of storage period 1.0~3.0 Fresh fish,
strawberry, etc
Extension of storage period, hygienic Including specimen material
Disinfection of
pathogen and
saprogenic bacteria
1.0~7.0 Fish and seafood,
frozen seafood,
fresh meat, frozen
meat, fresh poultry,
frozen poultry, etc
Extension of storage period, hygienic  
High dose irradiation Improvement of characteristics of foodstuff 2.0~7.0 Grape (increased
juice yield),
dehydrated
vegetable
(shortening of
cooking time), etc
Extension of storage period, hygienic Packaging container Cork
Sterilization (simultaneous moderate heating) 30~50 Meat, poultry
seafood, processed food, patient's meal
Extension of storage period, hygienic Experimental animal, feed, medical products
[Table] Areas of application for foodstuff irradiation technology
- First, prolonged safe storage is possible due to inhibition of viability of pest and decomposable organic matter.
- Second, make contribution towards safer foodstuff production and prevention of food mediated disease through   extinction of pathogenic microbes.
- Third, irradiation of foodstuff is a very effective method as quarantine management technology in extinction of   pest of food resources and in international fodd trading with respect to public health.
Current Status of Irradiation on Foodstuff - Domestic
(3) Current status of industrialization of food irradiation in Korea
A) Background and Process of Industrialization
1973.03 : Formal commencement of joint research on irradiation of foodstuff of various countries in Asia and              Pacific region
1980.07 : Pursuit of 1st phase of technology transfer for irradiation on foodstuff in accordance with cooperative              plans for Asia and Pacific region (RCA) (Japan: Support fund of $236,000)
1981.03 : Teaching food storage technology by Gamma ray to the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute,              commencement of irradiation experiment from diverse range of perspectives
1984.07 : Submission of application for approval for installation of large capacity gamma ray irradiation facility              (Ministry of Science and Technology)
1985.04 : Pursuit of 2nd phase of technology transfer for irradiation on foodstuff in accordance with cooperative              plans for Asia and Pacific region (RCA)
1985.05 : Acquisition of approval for installation of gamma ray irradiation facility (Ministry of Science and              Technology)
1985.09 : Holding of the 1st Comprehensive Deliberation Committee (deliberation of policy directions of Ministry              of Agriculture and Forestry, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Ministry of Science and Technology,              Rural Development Administration and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, etc)
1985.11 : Holding of the 2nd Comprehensive Deliberation Committee ? Recognition of marked stable, healthy and              economic proliferation effect and decided on assertive support of the government
1986.01 : Execution of contract by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry for introduction of Co-60 radiation              isotope from the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) along with decision to support 2.4 Billion Won              from the fund needed for irradiation facility
1986.06 : Amendment of Food Sanitation Act by the Presidential Order, new establishment of food irradiation              business
1986.08 : Examination of appropriateness of location of the facility (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute,              Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS)), deliberation of appropriateness in accordance with Law on              Arrangement of Factory and Law on Industrial Categorization (Economic Planning Board), and interim              report by the Minister of Agriculture and Forestry
1986.09 : Approval for permit for alteration of character of location (Yeoju-gun)
1986.10 : Commencement of construction works
1987.03 : Examination and approval by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) on gamma ray irradiation structure
1987.04 : Interim examination by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) and installation of Co-60
1987.06 : Installation of 100,000 Ci of Co-60 for the first time in Korea. Completion of construction of industrially              large capacity irradiation facility (Greenpia Technology Co., Ltd., Yeoju-gun, Gyeonggi-do)
Current Status of Irradiation on Foodstuff - Overseas
(3) Current Status in Major Countries
A) England
> Period of allowance of ethylene oxide processing of herb and spices has been terminated as at January 1, 1991. Gamma ray irradiation has been approved since February 13, 1991 for fruits, vegetables, grains, bulbs, spices, seasoning, fishes, shells and chicken up to allowable dose.
B) USA
> Food Safety Inspection Section (FSIS) of Department of Agriculture, USA (USDA) has approved commercial irradiation at the dosage of 1.5kGy - 3kGy in order to prevent disorder caused by foodstuff (October 21, 1992)
> Acknowledgement of foodstuffs disinfected with gamma ray irradiation for supply of foodstuff for Apollo Astronauts, and gamma ray irradiation disinfection method has been chosen as part of HACCP program of space food.
> Market for irradiated foodstuffs is being expanded with continuation of commercial irradiation of fresh agricultural products such as onion, tomato, strawberry, orange, juice and mushroom at food irradiation facilities in the State of Florida since January 1992.
> Commercial irradiation on poultry has commenced in the State of Illinois since September 1993, and gamma ray irradiated chicken is being expediently sold to consumers.
C) Japan
> More than 15,000 tons of potato is being gamma ray irradiated annually and are being distributed as raw potato or for processing. In addition, inhibition of regulations on gamma ray irradiation for some of the foodstuff is currently being expedited due to occurrence of food poisoning caused by pathogenic germs and coliform O0157 due to increase in supply of group meals and restaurant industry.
D) China
> In the case of China, although the gamma ray irradiation facilities officially reported to IAEA number 11, the number of gamma ray irradiation facilities with 300,000 Ci capacity that are being managed at the provincial level are 48 (as at 1995). If facilities with capacity of less than 300,000 Ci are included, it would be as many as 154.
E) Russia
> More than 400.000 tons of grain is being irradiated annually.
F) France
> Approximately 70,000 tons of poultry is being processed annually along with large quantities of frog leg, cheese, serum and spices.
Article 17921 of Chapter 1 of FDA 21CFR of USA
Source of radiation for examination of foodstuff, packaged foodstuff and food processing procedures X-ray tube with output standard of maximum of 500kV or lower ->-> X-ray of XAVIS Co., Ltd. is maximum of 120kV
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of USA
Safety of foodstuffs following disinfection with radiation has been researched through tests on animals and human being. Such experiments, in the case of animal experiments, have been conducted over several generations.
FSA (Food Standards Agency) of England
Radiation disinfection for foodstuff is irrelevant with the safety of foodstuff. In addition, level of exposure in the case of foodstuff that passes through X-ray detector at airports is approximately 0.5Gy and is absolutely safe.
->-> X-ray of XAVIS Co., Ltd. - 0.006Gy
Conclusion - Safety Issues for Irradiation of Foodstuff
Results of enormous number of researches conducted throughout the world have verified that food irradiation method using radiation energy is the cleanest and most safe means of food storage. IAEA of UN, Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (WHO) assertively recommends and implementing education on usage of this technology from the perspective of solving global shortage of foodstuff and improvement of hygiene and health.
Joint Economic Committee on Food Irradiation (JECFI) of FAO/WHO/IAEA in 1980
None of the food that has been irradiated with average radiation level of 10kGy on the average displayed any toxic disabilities. As such toxicity test is no longer necessary and it has been announced that it does not have problems at nutrition and micro-organism level.
1997³a FAO / WHO / IAEA Joint Study Group Meeting on High-Dose Irradiation
From the results of review of chemical, toxic, nutritional and micro-organism research on food irradiated with dosage of more than 10kGy, conclusion has been made that foodstuff irradiated under appropriate conditions even at dosage of more than 10kGy is safe and nutritionally appropriate.
Dosage of irradiation of X-ray detector for foreign matter in food of XAVIS Co., Ltd. is approximately 0.006Gy, making it substantially lower than the recommended value.
Commercial usage of irradiation of foodstuff
Commercial irradiation is being used worldwide by countries including USA, Japan, China, France, Germany and Netherlands in order to assure hygiene and quality of foodstuffs such as dehydrated vegetable, spices, meat, frozen food and fruits.
Food and Drug Administrations of USA approved irradiation of red meat on February 2, 1997.
Human Exposure to Irradiation
We are always exposed to radiation. Annual natural exposure of human being to radiation is approximately 2.4mSv, and dosage of approximately 1.0mSv is irradiated for each thoracic X-ray. According to Article 65 of the Atomic Energy Law and Article 63 of Implementation Act of Atomic Energy Law, the legal standard dose of surface radiation dosage rate at standard distance of 10cm is less than 10¥iSv/h. The surface radiation dosage rate at standard distance of 10cm for X-ray detector for foreign matter in food of XAVIS Co., Ltd. is less than 1¥iSv/h, making it lower than the regulated value.